WASHINGTON — President Biden loved excessive approval amongst People within the early months of his presidency. Hundreds of thousands of vaccines have been distributed all through america. The White Home trumpeted excessive job development as proof of a rebounding economic system.

However privately Mr. Biden’s lead pollster was already sounding the alarm that even with the early successes, sure gathering threats may sink help for the president and his get together.

“Immigration is a rising vulnerability for the president,” John Anzalone and his workforce warned in a package deal of confidential polling, voter surveys and proposals compiled for the White Home. “Voters don’t really feel he has a plan to deal with the scenario on the border, and it’s beginning to take a toll.”

Inside a month, there was one other stark warning. “Practically 9 in 10 registered voters are additionally involved about growing inflation,” mentioned one other memo obtained by The New York Occasions.

The sequence of confidential polling knowledge and weekly memos offered to Mr. Biden’s interior circle from April of final 12 months to January of this 12 months offers a highway map of the declining help of a president whose preliminary legislative proposals spurred comparisons to the New Deal or the Nice Society.

Regardless of the early warnings from his pollster, Mr. Biden and his prime advisers have struggled to forestall both concern from turning into a significant political legal responsibility. His financial workforce said inflation was temporary. Turmoil amongst his immigration aides delayed any serious action to address the border.

For all of the ambition of Mr. Biden’s home agenda, his pollster additionally warned him that the majority voters didn’t have a transparent sense of his financial proposals. Beginning final April, Mr. Anzalone urged Mr. Biden to do extra to clarify his plans for funding new authorities applications with new taxes on the rich. And final January, he wrote that “lower than a fifth of voters report having heard rather a lot about” his local weather and social spending package deal.

With congressional elections simply months away, the polling memos underscore the largest challenges for Mr. Biden and his get together as they face the prospect of shedding energy to Republicans on Capitol Hill.

The correspondence was obtained in reporting for a forthcoming e-book, “This Will Not Move: Trump, Biden and the Battle for America’s Future.”

Mr. Anzalone declined to remark. The paperwork have been obtained from three folks within the administration who had entry to the polling knowledge. They requested for anonymity due to the confidential and delicate nature of the paperwork.

“The president has been centered on decreasing prices for households and decreasing the worth of products,” mentioned David Kamin, the deputy director of the Nationwide Financial Council. He famous selections to deal with “value pressures,” together with forming a process power to deal with supply-chain points and releasing hundreds of thousands of barrels of oil from a strategic reserve to counteract the financial influence of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

Chris Meagher, a White Home spokesman, mentioned the administration had been “constant in our efforts to safe our border and construct a good, orderly and humane immigration system.”

Mr. Biden has blamed Russia’s invasion of Ukraine for prime inflation, though client costs have been excessive earlier than the assault, and he pointed to decrease unemployment as proof of a rebounding economic system amid the pandemic. The Homeland Safety Division launched a plan final week for a way the administration would strategy the border after lifting a Trump-era public well being rule that empowered border brokers to show away migrants.

However these methods have but to resonate with voters, and the president’s personal allies say except the administration can discover a approach to deal with vulnerabilities outlined by his personal workforce, Republicans will preserve momentum in November.

Simply over half of People disapprove of the job Mr. Biden is doing, based on a mean calculated by FiveThirtyEight, the info polling web site. Inflation is at a 40-year excessive because the Fed considers elevating rates of interest. Reasonable Democrats and Republicans are echoing Mr. Anzalone’s plea for a plan — a couple of 12 months later — to discourage unlawful crossings on the southwest border.

“Democrats have a extremely necessary option to make. That’s do you give into the fear-mongering that we all know the suitable goes to play into or promote, or do you present a imaginative and prescient of hope and prosperity for the long run?” mentioned Quentin James, the president of the Collective PAC, a company devoted to electing African American officers. “If we don’t, and we don’t present a imaginative and prescient and a path ahead, then of us will give into what they hear on the opposite facet.”

When Mr. Anzalone despatched the warning final spring that “immigration is the one concern the place the president’s scores are worse with our targets than with voters total,” the Biden administration was struggling to maneuver 1000’s of migrant youngsters out of border services and into shelters.

His administration had a plan to deal with the basis causes of migration in Central America and set up an orderly, compassionate system on the border, the president mentioned. “However it’s going to take time,” Mr. Biden mentioned throughout his first information convention as president.

Behind closed doorways, his prime aides debated all through the spring and summer season how briskly to unwind Trump-era insurance policies and what sort of system to exchange them with. In July, even because the administration made progress in shifting minors from the border services, Mr. Anzalone’s analysis confirmed the difficulty was inflicting anxiousness amongst voters.

A memo on July 9 pointed to immigration and crime as two main weaknesses for Mr. Biden.

“President Biden continues to carry weaker, destructive scores on two hot-button points which were lately effervescent up,” Mr. Anzalone mentioned.

Three days later, the president held a gathering on policing with Eric Adams, who would win the New York Metropolis mayoral election months later by making public security a spotlight of his marketing campaign. Mr. Biden has additionally inspired localities to speculate hundreds of thousands of {dollars} of coronavirus stimulus funds into police departments — an initiative that was unlikely to have a right away influence on violent crime.

However the pollster warned that whereas the president’s efficiency on the coronavirus and the economic system remained sturdy, “violent crime has edged out the coronavirus pandemic as the highest disaster.”

Mr. Biden’s response to the pandemic maintained help amongst voters till the summer season, based on the memos, when the withdrawal from Afghanistan and the unfold of the Delta variant damage his total approval scores.

The administration was stunned by the sturdiness of inflation, regardless of Mr. Anzalone’s analysis, partially as a result of the Delta variant’s influence on the economic system had precipitated a protracted stretch of spending on sure items, fairly than companies, driving up costs.

However the administration maintained for months that inflation could be short-term, a message that has not resonated with voters, based on the analysis.

“The economic system and inflation proceed to dominate what’s on the minds of voters — and their attitudes preserve getting worse, which continues to influence the president’s job score on the economic system negatively,” one of many memos mentioned. “And we must always not count on constructive motion within the quick or mid-term as voters are usually not simply feeling bitter concerning the economic system and inflation now, however voters additionally really feel issues are shifting within the improper path for the long run.”

Mr. Anzalone’s memos additionally offered analysis on what proposals voters supported.

His agency suggested that describing infrastructure and social-spending packages as a method to deal with supply-chain points, decrease drug prices and tax the wealthy could be widespread with older voters.

Mr. Biden appeared to capitalize on that analysis, holding numerous speeches on how his agenda was easing international shortages. His most up-to-date funds proposal included a billionaires’ tax to make sure that the wealthy “pay their justifiable share.”