Oleg Y. Tinkov was worth greater than $9 billion in November, famend as one among Russia’s few self-made enterprise tycoons after constructing his fortune exterior the vitality and minerals industries that had been the playgrounds of Russian kleptocracy.

Then, final month, Mr. Tinkov, the founding father of one among Russia’s greatest banks, criticized the conflict in Ukraine in a publish on Instagram. The subsequent day, he stated, President Vladimir V. Putin’s administration contacted his executives and threatened to nationalize his financial institution if it didn’t lower ties with him. Final week, he offered his 35 p.c stake to a Russian mining billionaire in what he describes as a “determined sale, a hearth sale” that was pressured on him by the Kremlin.

“I couldn’t focus on the value,” Mr. Tinkov stated. “It was like a hostage — you are taking what you’re provided. I couldn’t negotiate.”

Mr. Tinkov, 54, spoke to The New York Instances by cellphone on Sunday, from a location he wouldn’t disclose, in his first interview since Mr. Putin invaded Ukraine. He stated he had employed bodyguards after associates with contacts within the Russian safety companies instructed him he ought to concern for his life, and quipped that whereas he had survived leukemia, maybe “the Kremlin will kill me.”

It was a swift and jarring flip of fortune for a longtime billionaire who for years had prevented operating afoul of Mr. Putin whereas portraying himself as impartial of the Kremlin. His downfall underscores the implications going through these within the Russian elite who dare to cross their president, and helps clarify why there was little however silence from enterprise leaders who, in accordance with Mr. Tinkov, are nervous in regards to the influence of the conflict on their existence and their wallets.

Certainly, Mr. Tinkov claimed that lots of his acquaintances within the enterprise and authorities elite instructed him privately that they agreed with him, “however they’re all afraid.”

Within the interview, Mr. Tinkov spoke out extra forcefully in opposition to the conflict than has another main Russian enterprise chief.

“I’ve realized that Russia, as a rustic, not exists,” Mr. Tinkov stated, predicting that Mr. Putin would keep in energy a very long time. “I believed that the Putin regime was dangerous. However after all, I had no concept that it could tackle such catastrophic scale.”

The Kremlin didn’t reply to a request for remark.

Tinkoff, the financial institution Mr. Tinkov began in 2006, denied his characterization of occasions and stated there had been “no threats of any form in opposition to the financial institution’s management.” The financial institution, which introduced final Thursday that Mr. Tinkov had offered his whole stake within the firm to a agency run by Vladimir Potanin, a mining magnate near Mr. Putin, seemed to be distancing itself from its founder.

“Oleg has not been in Moscow for a few years, didn’t take part within the lifetime of the corporate and was not concerned in any issues,” Tinkoff stated in a press release.

Mr. Tinkov has additionally run into hassle within the West. He agreed to pay $507 million final 12 months to settle a tax fraud case in america. In March, Britain included him on an inventory of sanctions in opposition to the Russian enterprise elite.

“These oligarchs, companies and employed thugs are complicit within the homicide of harmless civilians and it’s proper that they pay the value,” Overseas Secretary Liz Truss said on the time.

Mr. Tinkov is however extensively seen as a uncommon Russian enterprise pioneer, modeling his maverick capitalism on Richard Branson and morphing from irreverent beer brewer to founding father of one of many world’s most sophisticated on-line banks. He says he has by no means set foot within the Kremlin, and he has often criticized Mr. Putin.

However not like Russian tycoons who years in the past broke with Mr. Putin and now reside in exile, corresponding to the previous oil magnate Mikhail B. Khodorkovsky or the tech entrepreneur Pavel Durov, Mr. Tinkov discovered a solution to coexist with the Kremlin and make billions — not less than till April 19.

That’s when Mr. Tinkov printed an emotional antiwar post on Instagram, calling the invasion “loopy” and deriding Russia’s navy: “Why would we’ve got a superb military,’’ he requested, if every thing else within the nation is dysfunctional “and mired in nepotism, servility and subservience?”

Professional-war Russians posted photographs of their shredded Tinkoff debit playing cards on social media. Vladimir Solovyov, a outstanding state tv host, delivered a tirade in opposition to him, declaring, “Your conscience is rotten.”

Mr. Tinkov was already exterior Russia at that time, having departed in 2019 to obtain therapy for leukemia. He later stepped down and ceded management of Tinkoff, however stored a 35 p.c stake within the firm, which was valued at greater than $20 billion on the London inventory change final 12 months.

A day after the April 19 publish, Mr. Tinkov stated Sunday, the Kremlin contacted the financial institution’s senior executives and instructed them that any affiliation with their founder was now a significant drawback.

“They stated: ‘The assertion of your shareholder isn’t welcomed, and we’ll nationalize your financial institution if he doesn’t promote it and the proprietor doesn’t change, and should you don’t change the title,’” Mr. Tinkov stated, citing sources at Tinkoff he declined to establish.

On April 22, Tinkoff introduced it could change its title this 12 months, a step it claims was lengthy deliberate. Behind the scenes, Mr. Tinkov says, he was scrambling to promote his stake — one which had already been devalued by Western sanctions in opposition to Russia’s monetary system.

Mr. Tinkov stated he was grateful to Mr. Potanin, the mining magnate, for permitting him to salvage not less than some cash from his firm; he stated that he couldn’t disclose a value, however that he had offered at 3 p.c of what he believed to be his stake’s true worth.

“They made me promote it due to my pronouncements,” Mr. Tinkov stated. “I offered it for kopecks.”

He had been contemplating promoting his stake anyway, Mr. Tinkov stated, as a result of “so long as Putin is alive, I doubt something will change.”

“I don’t imagine in Russia’s future,” he stated. “Most significantly, I’m not ready to affiliate my model and my title with a rustic that assaults its neighbors with none purpose in any respect.”

Mr. Tinkov is worried {that a} basis he began that’s devoted to enhancing blood most cancers therapy in Russia may additionally turn out to be a casualty of his monetary hassle.

He denied that he was talking out within the hopes of getting the U.Ok. sanctions in opposition to him lifted, although he stated he hoped the British authorities would ultimately “right this error.”

He stated that his sickness — he’s now affected by graft-versus-host illness, a stem-cell transplant complication, he stated — might need made him extra brave about talking out than different Russian enterprise leaders and senior officers. Members of the elite, he claimed, are “in shock” in regards to the conflict and have known as him in nice numbers to supply help.

“They perceive that they’re tied to the West, that they’re a part of the worldwide market, and so forth,” Mr. Tinkov stated. “They’re quick, quick being became Iran. However they don’t prefer it. They need their children to spend their summer time holidays in Sardinia.”

Mr. Tinkov stated that nobody from the Kremlin had ever contacted him immediately, however that along with the strain on his firm, he heard from associates with safety service contacts that he could possibly be in bodily hazard.

“They instructed me: ‘The choice relating to you has been made,’” he stated. “Whether or not that signifies that on high of every thing they’re going to kill me, I don’t know. I don’t rule it out.”